Migraine is a neurological condition that causes severe headaches, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound. However, many people who suffer from migraines experience pre-migraine symptoms, which can be recognized and understood to prevent the onset of the headache. Here are some common pre-migraine symptoms:
- Aura: About 25% of migraine sufferers experience an aura, which is a visual disturbance that occurs before the onset of the headache. This can include seeing flashing lights, zigzag lines, or blind spots.
- Mood changes: Some people experience changes in mood before a migraine, such as feeling irritable or depressed.
- Food cravings: Many people report having food cravings before a migraine, particularly for sweets or salty foods.
- Neck stiffness: Some people experience stiffness in their neck or shoulders before a migraine.
- Fatigue: Feeling excessively tired or fatigued can be a pre-migraine symptom.
- Increased urination: Some people experience an increase in urination before a migraine.
- Sensitivity to smells: Some people become more sensitive to certain smells before a migraine.
Recognizing these pre-migraine symptoms can help people take preventive measures before the onset of a headache. For example, avoiding trigger foods, getting enough sleep, and practicing relaxation techniques like meditation or yoga can help reduce the frequency and severity of migraines. It’s also important to talk to a healthcare provider about any migraines or pre-migraine symptoms you experience, as they can provide personalized treatment and management strategies.
What to do if you have pre-migraine symptoms
Pre-migraine symptoms, also known as prodrome symptoms, can include a range of warning signs such as changes in mood or appetite, neck stiffness, fatigue, and visual disturbances. If you are experiencing these symptoms, it is important to take action as soon as possible to prevent the onset of a full-blown migraine.
Here are some steps you can take:
- Take medication: If you have been prescribed medication for migraines, take it as soon as you start experiencing prodrome symptoms. This can help prevent the migraine from developing.
- Rest and relax: Lie down in a dark, quiet room and try to relax. Turn off any electronics or bright lights that could trigger the migraine. Try to take deep breaths and focus on relaxing your muscles.
- Stay hydrated: Dehydration can be a trigger for migraines, so make sure to drink plenty of water.
- Avoid triggers: Identify any triggers that may have caused previous migraines and try to avoid them. This could include certain foods, stress, lack of sleep, or changes in weather.
- Use cold or heat therapy: Applying a cold compress or heat pack to your head or neck can help alleviate pain and reduce the severity of the migraine.
If your symptoms persist or worsen despite taking these steps, it may be best to consult a healthcare professional for further guidance and treatment options.
Migraines typically have four stages, although not everyone experiences all of them:
- Prodrome: This is the first stage and can occur up to 48 hours before the onset of the headache. Symptoms can include changes in mood or appetite, neck stiffness, fatigue, and visual disturbances.
- Aura: This stage occurs in some but not all migraine sufferers, and typically lasts up to an hour. Symptoms can include visual disturbances, such as seeing flashes of light or zigzag lines, as well as numbness or tingling sensations.
- Headache: This is the most severe stage and can last from a few hours to several days. Symptoms can include a throbbing or pulsating pain, often on one side of the head, as well as sensitivity to light, sound, and smells.
- Postdrome: This is the final stage and can last for up to a day after the headache subsides. Symptoms can include fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and mood changes.
It is important to note that not everyone experiences all of these stages, and some people may experience different symptoms or stages than others. It is also possible to experience migraines without a headache, which is known as a silent migraine.